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Saturday, September 26, 2009

The Worshipper’s desire to be free from need / Munyat Al-Musali

In the name of Allah, most merciful, most beneficent

This is a first draft translation of part of the section on purity from Munyat Al-Musali by Imam Al-Kashghari. This is according to the Hanafi school of thought.

Author's Introduction

All praise belongs to Allah, Sustainer of the universe and prayers and blessings upon the Messenger Muhammad and all his family. May Allah grant you success. Know that there are many kinds of knowledge and the most important of them is to study of the issues of prayer. When I saw the students desire to catch the flame of learning, I chose the well known positions and what they would need from the works of the Muqaddimeen, Mutaikhreen from: Al-Hidiyyah, Al Muheet, Sharh Al-Isbijabi, Al-Ghina, Al-Multqd, Al-Dkhira, Fatwa Qadikhan. Then I gathered them and called the book, “The Worshippers desire to be free of need.”

I ask Allah to make what I chose sincerely for his countenance, removal of my sins by his bounty and to forgive me, my parents, my teachers, He is the one who puts people on the truth by his guidance and direction.

Book of purity for prayer

Know that Prayer is a permanent obligation by the Quran, the Hadith and the Consensus of the scholars.

Quran: Allah says, “Establish prayer.” (2.34) “Guard your prayers and the middle prayer.” (2.238) (According to the Ibn Mas'ud this is Asr prayer). “So glorify Allah when you enter the night and when you enter the morning. Unto him be praise in the Heavens and the Earth and the suns decline and at noon.” (30.17-18) (Ibn Abbas says that entering into the night is maghrib, entering the day is fajr, sun's decline is Isha and noon is Zuhr)

Allah also says, “Worship at fixed times has been enjoined on the believers.” (4.103)

Hadith: It is narrated that the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said, “Islam is built upon five things: to testify that there is no deity except Allah and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, Establish prayer, Pay the tax, fast the months of Ramadan and perform pilgrimage for whoever is able.” (Bukhari 8, Muslim 19, At-Tirmidhi 2534)

He (peace and blessings be upon him) also said, “Everything has a sign and the sign of faith is prayer.” (Ibn 'Adi in Al-Kamal 4/118 and Al-Khattib in the History of Baghdad 11/9.)

Also he (peace and blessings be upon him) said, “Prayer is a pillar of faith, whoever establishes it has established the religion and whoever leaves it has ruined the religion.” (Ibn Hajar in Takhalis al-habir that is was narrated by Abu Nay'im teacher of Bukhari in the chapter on prayer.)

He (peace and blessings be upon him) said, “Five prayers have been enjoined upon the servant by Allah. Whoever prefects their Wudu, their prayer in its time and completes their bowing, prostration, presence of heart, they have an agreement with Allah that he will forgive them.”(Ahmed 22121, Al-Hakim 2407 and Tabarani in Al-Kabir 292)

He (peace and blessings be upon him) said, “The difference between worship and disbelief, is leaving the prayer.” (Abu Dawud 361, Ibn Majah 1391 and Ahmed 21737. Ibn Abbas says disbelief here means rejecting blessing not actual disbelief.)

The consensus of the scholars is that the prayer is obligatory from the time of the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) without denial or discussion. This is the consensus. The consensus of the Muslim is a proof, the witness of the truth said (peace and blessing be upon), “My nation will not agree upon a misguidance. If my nation agree upon a misguidance then I am free from them and they are free from them.” (Ahmed 25966, At-Tirmidhi 2544, An-Nisa'i 460, Ibn Majah 1077)

Now know that Prayer has conditions before it, obligations, pillars, requirements, sunnas, etiquettes and forbidden actions.

Obligations of Wudhu/Ablution

The obligations of wudu are four as Allah said in his book (Quran), “O ye who believe! When you rise up for prayer, wash your faces and your hands up to the elbows and wipe your heads and wash your feet to the ankles.” (5.6)

The elbows, ankles need to be washed in bathing, the skin between the hair and ear, its necessary to wash them. (Abu Yusuf (may Allah show him mercy) disagrees). It has been ordered to wipe the head to the extent of the forehead, a quarter of the head. It is narrated that Al-Mugeera ibn Sh’aba (may Allah be pleased be with) that the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) came to a garbage site he made wudu then wiped his head and his leather socks.”

Sunnan of Wudu

The Sunnas are;
1.Washing both hands up to the wrist before putting them into the water container, three times.
2. Saying Bismillah in the beginning of the prayer. The soundest opinion is to say it twice, one before revealing your nakedness for Istinja and once when starting to wash the limbs.
3. Siwak (Clean your teeth).
4. Rinsing the mouth out.
5. Cleaning the nose with new water.
6. Making the water reach under the moustache and eyebrows.
7.Wiping what hangs from the beard.
8.And putting wet hands through it.
9.Wiping the whole head with same water. Description of the parts, wet your hands, (palms and fingers) then use three fingers except the thumb and the index finger, to wipe the head starting at the forehead. The inside of the palm should not touch the head. Then wipe the sides of the head with the inside palms. Then wipe the back of the ear with the thumb and with the index finger wipe the internal ear. As described in the book, “Al Muheet.”
10.Wiping the back of the neck with three finger using new water and some say this is etiquette.
11. Wiping between fingers.
12. Washing the parts three times.
13. Intention.
14. In Order.
15. Rubbing.
16. Washing the next part before the other one is dry.

Etiquettes of Wudu

The Etiquettes are:
1. To prepare for prayer before the time enters.
2. To sit in a widened stance during Istinja except if fasting.
3. To wash the fifth if it leaves its exit or if it exceeds its exit, less than the amount of a Dirham, washing it is Sunna. If it is the equivalent of a Dirham then it is necessary to wash it. If it is more than a Dirham then it obligatory to wash it.
4. Wash until clean, there is no Sunna number to do Istinja with stone rather wash until clean.
5. To wash the place of Istinja with a cloth after bathing, before moving. If you do not have a cloth use the palm of your hand.
6. To cover your nakedness until finished
7. To perform wudu yourself and to order anyone else (to help you.)
8. To sit facing the Qibla when washing the limbs
9. Sit in an elevated place
10. Not to talk about worldly matters during Wudu
11. To say the shahada when washing each limb
12. To use the supplications of the scholars
13. To rinse your mouth and to clean your nostrils with your right hand
14. To take water away with your left hand
15. To clean your mouth out, with Siwak or your finger if you do not have Siwak (clean from side to side and up and down.)
16. To exaggerate the rinsing and cleaning nose unless you are fasting. To exaggerate during rinsing, some say this is to gargle, as Al Sadr states in “Al-Shahid”, “this is to use enough water to fill the mouth.” Cleaning the mouth is sniff water until it reaches the nose bone.
17. Entering the hand into the outer ear, when wiping
18. to wash between toes using the little finger
19. To move the ring, if it is large. If it is tight then the popular position of our companions is to move the ring or take it off, as mentioned in “Al-Muheet.”
20. Not to waste water even if you are at a riverbank. As it is related that the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) was asked, “Is it possible to waste water?” He (peace and blessings be upon him) said, “Yes, even if you are on a riverbank.” (Ibn Majah)
21. Not to use the least water.
22. To fill your container twice.
23. To say the following on completion of the Wudu: “O’Allah cause me to be amongst the forgiven and the purified and from your sincere servants. And make me those who are not scared or saddened." (Muslim 234, Abu Dawod 169)
24. To say when finishing say, looking at the sky: “Glory and praise be to you, O’Allah I testify that there is no diety but you alone, you have not partner, I ask you for forgiveness and seek your pardon. I testify that Muhammad is your servant and Messenger.” (An-Nisa'i in the actions of the day and night 71)
25. To read Sura Al-Qadr once, twice or thrice
26. To drink the reminder of the water standing and say: “O Allah heal me with your healing, cure me with your cure and protect me from diseases, dismay and hunger.” (Hilyah and Ibn Abideen 1/78) It is disliked to drink water standing up except here and Zam zam water.
27. To pray two units even in a disliked time (for greeting the Wudu.)
28. To make Wudu upon Wudu.

Prohibitions of Wudu

The prohibitions are:
1. Not to face the Qibla whilst doing Istinja
2. to uncover their nakedness to anyone. Istinja with water is superior, if it is possible not to uncover. If it is not possible to do Istinja with stones and not to uncover the nakedness if the filth is larger than a Dirham.
3. And not to do Istinja with our right hand
4. Not to do Istinja with food, animal faeces, bone, insects, animal food, the right of another or coal.
5. Not to spit or cough in the water.
6. Not to exceed the amount of times washed more than needed.
7. Not to wipe the limbs with the same cloth that you clean the Istinja place.
8. Not to strike you water with water, when washing.
9. Not to blow into the water.
10. Not to close the mouth or eyes so firmly that water does not reach the lips or eyelids, this is not possible.

This section is about major and minor impurity:

Major washing (bathing)

Reasons for bathing:
1. Emitting of semen with desire during the conjugation act. As for the leaving of the sperm its place, there is a difference of opinion. When a man was a wet dream and stops himself then semen exits from him without desire, bathing is necessary for him according to Abu Yusuf.
2. Entering one of either of the tracts of a man or woman, when the head of the male part has entered, whether semen has come out or not. It is necessary to bathe upon the actor and the acted upon.
3. As for entering animals, dead women, children which there is no legal union for. There is no washing upon him and scholars mentioned in “Al-Saghira” that it is necessary.
4. After Menstrual cycle.
5. Post partum bleeding (after childbirth.)

Necessities of the Bathing

The necessities of bathing
1. Rinsing mouth.
2. Cleaning the nose out.
3. Washing every limb of the body.
4. Water reaches the roots of the hair and after conjugation.
5. And likewise water has to reach the roots of the beard hair.

Sunnan of Bathing

1. Start wudu and leaving out washing the feet up the ankles.
2. Removing filth from the body if needed, then pouring water upon the head and the limbs three times. Then move from that place and wash the feet up to the ankles.
3. Not to waste water.
4. Not to use less water.
5. Do not face the Qibla when performing bathing.
6. Rub the limbs of the body, for the first time.
7. When he is washing that others do not see him.
8. Not to speak at all.

Desirable acts of Bathing

1. Wipe the body with a towel after washing.
2. Washing the feet after wearing clothes.
3. To pray two units of prayer.

The intention is not a condition for bathing or wudu, if they are impure and immerse himself or herself in running water or a large pool, even if it is to cool down; or standing in heavy rain and has rinsed the mouth and cleaned the nose out so that they have left impurity.

Bathing is eleven kinds,

Five of them are obligatory:
1. Bathing after periods.
2. Post partum bleeding.
3. Meeting of mating organs with pleasure of the organs.
4. Semen leaving by ejaculating or with desire.
5. Someone who has seen a wet dream when semen or prostate water has come out.

The Four that are Sunna
1. Washing on a Friday.
2. The two Eids.
3. The Day of Arafat.
4. In Ihram.

Tayyamum (Dry Ablution)

The Pillars

Two strikes, once for the face and once for the elbows - wiping from the hands up to elbows.

The conditions

1. Intention, is not acceptable without it
2. Searching for water. If you think that there is water in a place, in a building or that you where informed of the presence of water by people. The difference of opinion is when are unsure, when you have not been informed or if you are in the desert. We say that is not necessary to search, against the opinion of Imam Shafi (May Allah show him mercy). When you have been informed by a person that there is no water, it is permissible to do Tayamum without disagreement.
3. If they are unable to use water, because of illness, fear that the illness will worsen or slow down recovery then it is permissible to do Tayamum.

Chapter on wiping leather socks

Wiping upon them is permissible by Sunna from all impurities that necessitate wudu, when worn on complete purity. If resident they wipe for a day and a night. If travelling then they wipe for three days and nights.

It begins when entering impurity and not the time of purity or of wearing the socks.
When washing the feet and putting the socks on then completing Wudu before the action of wiping upon them is permissible according to us, against Imam Shafi. According to us it is enough that he is wearing them upon complete purification when the first impurity occurs.

Description of the wiping

To begin from the toes, using the palm and then moving towards the leg or by putting the palm and the fingers and spreading them completely.

Wiping the tips of the toes and underneath the foot is not permissible except if the water has dripped there.

It is desired to wipe with the inside of the palm, it is permissible if its wiped with the back of the hand. It is not permissible to wipe the sole of the foot, above the heal or at the sides.

Chapter on the ablution breakers

1. Anything that comes out of either exit (any kind of liquid) if wind comes from the male it breaks but not from the female private place, it does not break, as mentioned in Al-Muheet.

2. As for vomit, if the vomit is full mouth it breaks.

3. As for blood and the like, if it comes from the body and its flowing it breaks and it does not.

4. Sleep breaks wudhu, if lying down or leaning down on something and if it is removed then he falls. (Sleeping in a fixed position where the backside does not move does not break wudhu)

5.Losing consciousness.

6. Madness.

7. Drunkenness. The definition of drunkenness is that a person cannot tell the difference between a man and a woman.

8. Laughter (if audible) breaks any prayer with a bowing and prostration. It breaks the Wudhu and prayer both if done on purpose. (The funeral prayer is not affected.)

9. The meeting of reproductive organs (with desire) breaks wudhu according to Abu Hanifa and Abu Yusuf (may Allah show them mercy).

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