Sunday, March 29, 2009
Making a supplication is seen in many different ways; some of them negative, some people see it as a sign of weakness, others do not see the point of making supplication as they do not see the effects, others are too shy and the list goes on. We are going to speak about all these issues, if Allah allows us to do so.
The word supplicate means either: to ask for humbly and earnestly, as by prayer or to make a humble request of; petition earnestly. The Latin root word "supplicatus, pp. of supplicare" means to kneel down, pray. (http://www.yourdictionary.com/supplicate)
The Arabic word has many meanings it stems from the word دعا (da'a) meaning: to call, to summon, to call upon, to invite and the meaning can change if a preposition is added like ب or إلى. The word we are talking about is دعاء (du'a) which means to call or invoke God. The Encompassing dictionary describes the word as "a desire for Allah the exalted." (p. 1179)
These meanings sum up what supplication or Du'a are the humble desire for Allah to answer your request. Or the request made on your knees.
Does prayer work?
Of course it does, it seems like a daft question to some but many doudt that it is. They ask for a way out of their troubles and it does not seem to be answered. Know that just because you have made a supplication it does not mean that the circumstance or the event that you want will occur straight away. Also it does not mean the prayer is not answered. Every prayer is responded to but not on your timetable but on that according to the way that Allah (the Almighty) decides to do so. So do not panic or get upset, once that supplication is made by you, relax and do not get stressed or worried.
I remember as a child not getting up straight away to my parents instructions, they would say to be that I was not "listening," just because I did not get up straight away did not mean that I was not listening.
Once the prayer is made it is heard, there is no question about that, the Quran states,
"I listen to the prayer of every suppliant when he calleth on Me." (2:186)
"And your Lord says: Pray unto me: and I will hear your prayer." (Quran 40:60)
The prayer is heard, you should have no doubt about that and you should not panic to when the response will come. Know the response will come and you should not fear that your prayer has gone unanswered.
The only unanswered Du'as are the ones in which you questioned.
Abu Hurayra reported Allah's Messenger (may peace and blessing be upon him) said, "The supplication of one of you is granted if he does not grow impatient and say, "I supplicated to my Lord but it was not granted." (Muslim 6594)
"The invocation of any one of you is granted [by Allah] as long as he does not show impatience by saying "I have invoked Allah but my request has not been answered." [Sahih al-Bukhari]
Be patient the supplication has been made and now you wait to see what happens. Know that sometimes it is better for you not to have what you wished for because that will cause you great harm. You may have asked for marriage to a certain person who you thought was the best thing since sliced bread but later it turned out that that person was not even a crumb of a jam sandwich! So the supplication that was not responded immediately was in fact answered better than you could imagine or understand.
The following prophetic narration is worth reflecting and indeed pondering over.
Abu Sa'ed Al-Khuduri narrates that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said, "No Muslim makes a supplication to Allah without being granted one of three things: it hastens the fulfilment of what he has asked for, or it is saved up for him until the Day of Judgement, or it prevents a similar kind of trouble from happening to him - unless it was for something bad or something that might break familiy ties." (at-Tirmidhi 9/923)
So the first of the three is when something is delayed like a decree that will occur and it is causes gentleness to manifest, like when someone is going to pass away. The second is that the supplication is turned into good actions on the Day of Judgement. The third is to remove any similar problem occurring to you for example an illness etc.
Another amazing prophetic narration follows:
"The servant supplicates to Allah (the praiseworthy) and he loves it, he calls, "O' Gibreal, delay fulfilling the need of my servant as I love to hear the sound of his voice." The servant who supplicates to Allah and he abhores it, he calls out, "O' Gibreal, give my servant his need as I dislike hearing his voice." (Ibn Majah : funeral 27)
So if your need is not fulfilled straight away do not lose hope because it might be a good sign.
"It was narrated that Yahya ibn Sa'ed Al-Qattan (may Allah show him mercy) saw the Real (Allah) in a dream, he asked, "How many a time have I supplicated to you without response?" He said, "O' Yahya, I loved to hear the sound of your voice." (Risala Qushariyya p.297)
This is very important; you must have a good opinion about Allah when you supplicate. Why?
"I am as My servant thinks I am..." (Bukhari)
This can be translated in a few different ways to help illustrate this point. As much as a good opinion a person has about Allah (The Almighty) he backs it up or he affirms it. So if a person does not think that Allah (mighty and majestic) is merciful then he will find Allah (mighty and majestic) unmerciful. So this also affects the condition that you find your heart in when you supplicate. Have a good opinion of Allah (mighty and majestic) and then begin your supplication.
"Whoever does not supplicate to Allah invokes his wrath." (At-Tirmidhi 9/313, Ibn Majah 2/1258 and Al-Hakim 1/491)
So make Du'a, supplicate and do not fear that your prayer is not answered or responded to, supplicate and do not worry.
The Quranic injunction
I just wish to use another translation of the aforementioned verse:
"Call on Me; I will answer you." (40:60)
The word call here is da'a and here it is in the imperative form or fa'il amr, as it is known in Arabic. This is not a choice this is an order, an injunction, supplication is an injunction. As these prophetic narrations attest to this.
"There is nothing more dear to Allah Ta'ala than a servant supplicating to him." [at Tirmidhi]
"Supplication is the essence of worship." [at Tirmdhi, Ahmad]
We turn to Allah (mighty and majestic) forgetting our wayward times during the day and direct ourselves solely to him. Making supplication is not just a waste of time it is an act of worship and as an act of worship we hope a reward for it.
When is the best time to supplicate?
This can depend on the time of year or time of day like the Day of Arafat, Ramadan, the morning and the last part of the night. But the best time to supplicate is when you are upset, when you are in tears, when you are heartbroken; as in this time there is no veil between you and Allah. This is best time to supplicate when you have no other door to turn to for help. So whenever you are upset supplicate and make it as long as you want. If need be you can go to a place that you will not be disturbed and supplicate, then do so.
"Call upon your Lord humbly and in secret." (Quran 7: 55)
Will some never have their supplications answered?
Yes, disbelievers in Allah will not get their supplications answered unless they are oppressed; only believers will have their supplications answered.
It is reported on the authority of Ibn 'Abbas that Mu'adh said that The Messenger of Allah sent me (as a governor of Yemen) and (at the time of departure) instructed me thus, "You will soon find yourself in a community one among the people of the Book, so first call them to testify that there is no god but Allah, that I (Muhammad) am the messenger of Allah, and if they accept this, then tell them Allah has enjoined upon them five prayers during the day and the night and if they accept it, then tell them that Allah has made Zakat obligatory for them that it should be collected from the rich and distributed among the poor, and if they agree to it don't pick up (as a share of Zakat) the best of their wealth’s. Beware of the supplication of the oppressed for there is no barrier between him and Allah." (Muslim)
Abu Hurayra reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying, "O' people, Allah is Good and He therefore, accepts only that which is good. And Allah commanded the believers as He commanded the Messengers by saying:" O Messengers, eat of the good things, and do good deeds; verily I am aware of what you do" (23. 51). And He said: ' 0 those who believe, eat of the good things that We gave you" (2. 172) He then made a mention of a person who travels widely, his hair dishevelled and covered with dust. He lifts his hand towards the sky (and thus makes the supplication):" O' Lord,O' Lord," whereas his diet is unlawful, his drink is unlawful, and his clothes are unlawful and his nourishment is unlawful. How can then his supplication be accepted?" (Muslim)
Another point about this hadith is that if a person wants their supplication to be accepted then they should be mindful of the food they eat and the means in which they earn their provision.
Some Supplications of the Prophets (upon them all peace) in The Quran
Please read through these ayats as they are showing us the best example of how to supplicate.
"Then Zachariah prayed to his Lord, saying, 'Lord, bestow upon me from You a goodly offspring, verily You are the Hearer of supplication." (The Family of Imran 38)
The noble Prophet Zachariah (upon him peace) has a good opinion and a strong convicition that his prayer will be answered. And below, in another section of the Quran, he shows us an amazing way to supplicate by stating that he has never had a supplication unresponded to.
"He said, 'My Lord, truly the bones within me have become feeble, and my head is alight with grey hair, and I have never been in my supplications to You, my Lord, unsuccessful." (Maryum 4)
"And when Abraham said, ’My Lord, make this a land secure, and provide its people with fruits, such of them as believe in God and the Last Day." (The Heffer 2:126)
"And when Abraham, and Ishmael with him, raised up the foundations of the House: ’Our Lord, accept this from us; Thou art the All-hearing, the All-knowing."
Here the Prophet Ibrahim (upon him peace) has built the Kaaba and is now requesting that Allah accept his works and make the surroundings into a safe place and make them believers. This prayer was answered by affirmation of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), that he was the answer.
The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) saved his supplication for his nation.
Yahya related to me from Malik from Abu'z-Zinad from al-Araj from Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Every prophet is given a supplication and I wish to preserve my supplication as intercession for my community in the next world." (Malik)
How shall someone supplicate?
Qadi Iyad in As-Shifa states the following method of making supplication:
1. Praise Allah Subhanu wa Ta’ala
2. Send prayers onto the Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him)
3. Ask for you need
4. Prayers on the Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) in the middle and in the end
Be firm in your supplication, ask for you need three times, praise Allah and expect it to be answered.
Yahya related to me from Malik from Abu'z Zinad from al-Araj from Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ''When you are making supplication do not say; 'O Allah, forgive me if You wish. O Allah, forgive me if you wish.' You should be firm in your asking, for there is no compelling Him." (Malik Book #15, Hadith #15.8.28)
Anas reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying, "When one of you makes supplication, he should supplicate with a will and should not say: O Allah, confer upon me if Thou likest, for there is none to coerce Allah." (Malik Book #035, Hadith #6477)
Also make as much supplication for your brothers and sister as you can. Do not be shy about making it for anyone that asks you for a supplication. You may need to ask for forgiveness for sins or a need that you may have, just ask as you are communicating with Allah (mighty and majestic) whose generosity has no bounds, so do not be shy, be hopeful. Either way you will be responded to maybe not it the manner in which you wish but the manner that is best for you, even though you may not know what that is.
In Habib Ahmed Manshhur Al-Haddad's book "Key to the Garden" (page 112) he states that when someone says Allahumma, they have used all the names and attributes of Allah (mighty and majestic). Hassan Al-Basri said, "Allahumma is the comprehensive prayer."
The person making supplication must also be aware of his own state, do they pray? Do they practice Islam? This does not mean that their supplication will not be answered. Know that many who are not righteous have made supplications which have made them righteous.
Finally, please supplicate for this sinful person as he is in dire need of someone righteous to supplicate for him. He has done many wrongs and needs help.
For simple daily supplications please see the following link. http://sheikhynotes.blogspot.com/2009/01/simple-daily-supplications.html
Abdullah ibn Amr ibn al-'As narrated that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said, "The supplication which gets the quickest answer is that made by one distant Muslim for another." (Abu Dawood Book #8, Hadith #1530)
Friday, March 27, 2009
You can view another video on Islamic/Muslim Spain
Wednesday, March 25, 2009
Translated by Sheikh Ibrahim Osi-efa
Every single moment Allah showers mercies upon the believers
When mercy falls into a heart of a non Muslim then it is a cause for his guidance
The non Muslim cannot come near guidance with the means of the mercy that comes into the hearts of the believers
When he is close to them then his effected by the heart of Muslim
Believers are heedless of the mercy falling upon them from angelic beings
Likewise the person who recites Ayat Al-Kursi when an angel descends to protect the believer; most of them are heedless of this guardian angel
If a person goes to sleep with Wudhu then an angel sleeps with him to stop him turning; how many times do we tosh and turn in our beds?
The mercy of Allah is sensed by some and others are not aware
Ibn Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him) said there are ten angels who protect a person from demons or devils
Ibn Asakir (may Allah show him mercy) said if it was not for the protection of the angels people would be snatched in the streets
Everybody benefits from the Earth, sun, rain etc
Although there are special gifts given to believers
The times are different and they have different qualities
Our role is to fulfil the prerequisite to receive this mercy
There are things that can never receive mercy the Jinns, satans
The opposite are the Angels who are the opposite of them
Then there is mankind, different to both; we need sustenance
We can reach height or lows
The first thing that was created was the light of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) then this light was separated as it is stated in hadith
Allah was before there was anything; before anything was created
There is a book with Allah that states, “My mercy overcomes my anger.” As in hadith
We should always have a good opinion of Allah (mighty and majestic)
Allah gives through intermediaries
We receive ten blessings from one invocation upon the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) and this is ten mercies
Sometimes he will be heedless of the mercy that he is receiving until he reaches a time when he can recognise the mercy
When he agrees with the gifts that he is given then he receive more
The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) asked, “Would a mother throw her child into the fire?” The companions said, “No.” He replied, “Allah is more merciful than that.”
If a non Muslim saw the mercy that is descending on us then it would enter his heart
It would overcome ones nature
It can manifest suddenly
As soon as he believes in Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) mercies arrive at him
We can turn the heads of the non Muslims to these mercies
This is the turning of the hearts to this mercy
Also, someone can manifest this goodness to others and then this could be a cause to find its source
May Allah (mighty and majestic) envelop us in his mercy
Sunday, March 22, 2009
“Dear son do not associate partners to Allah, Truly idolatry is a great injustice.” Luqman 31:12
“Allah does not forgive idolatry, yet he will forgive other than that, to whomever he pleases.” The Women 4:48
Shirk in the Arabic language means to co share or to share
In the sacred law it means to make a partner to God, in essence or worship
There are six types of Shirk:
1. Shirk Istqlal: Autonomous idolatry – to belief in separate deities i.e. Zoroastrians
2. Shirk Tab’ad: separate idolatry – to say God is one of three
3. Shirk Taqrib: approximate idolatry – to say that they are worshipping idols to get closer to God.
4. Shirk Taqlid: Imitative idolatry – to follow fathers
5. Shirk Falsafa: idolatry of the philosophers – to believe that there is a power other than God
6. Shirk Al-Gharad: idolatry of intention – this is carry out actions for other God, in intention
The first four are considered as disbelief/kufr
The fifth: we have to find out: a) if he believes that something has independence power then it is kufr, b) if they believe that they have a power by God then this is innovation/Bi’da
The sixth is a sin
Shirk/idolatry is minor and major.
One to five are major idolatry and number six in minor because of the hadith that it is minor idolatry when the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) warned the companions. The Prophet said, "I only fear for you minor idolatry.” The companions asked, “What is minor idolatry?” He replied, “Ostentation.” (Imam Ahmed Musnad 23119)
According to other scholars they state idolatry is three kinds:
1. Idolatry in Lordship/Rububiyyah by two things: a) to deny God and say he is created, b) to say someone can create other than God.
2. Idolatry in Uluhiyyah: this is worship of other things, this is major and the minor shirk has been explained before
3. Idolatry in names and attributes of God, this is of two types: A) to consider something similar to God, someone can forgive other than him. B) To make god similar to creation
Friday, March 20, 2009
If you want to see our notes of the events please click on the appropriate label below.
Bradford 2008 Part one of two
Translated by Sheikh Ibrahim Osi Efa
Is from the family Hahab ibn Bishir a companion
It is incumbent for believers to reflect on the tie to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him)
All the moments that Allah extents to him especially in this month
The Prophet (peace and blessing of Allah be upon him) said, “A Muslim is he that people are safe from his tongue and hand.”
A believer is who doesn’t not inflict harm in their blood or wealth (for anyone)
The one who does not do this how can he considered a believer
Many examples of before and after prophecy he was a trustworthy person
Even those who rejected him still trusted him
He charged Ali with returning all the items trusted to him when he left for Medina
He did not harm people in any way
He (peace and blessings of Allah be him) did not consider for a minute of stealing their properties even though they had fought him and opposed him
One of the people who opposed him was ill and he visited him then advised to accept Islam before death, he looked at his father he said, “Obey, Abu Qasim.” He said it and died upon faith, the father was a Jewish man
Khubayb ibn Arad who on sacred engagement was taken prisoner. He was about to executed so he requested a razor to groom himself, from a lady. He begins to groom himself; he is in chains; her child crawls into his lap. Many thought that this was an opportunity to either kill the child or use it as means of escape. But a Muslim is a source of security for others. When the mother came back and saw the child playing with Khubayb she began to quiver, in fear for her child. When Kubayb looked at her and saw her fear then realised that he had a knife in his hand and her child in his lap. He said, “Are you fearful of me? The companions of Muhammad do not kill women or children, take your child.” Then he directed the child towards her. She said, “I have not seen any prisoner like Khubayb.”
In a hadith the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah upon him) said, “Whoever defrauds is not one of us.” (This enters into many chapters of the buying and selling)
The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) asked, “Can a believer be a coward?”
he replied, “Yes.”
“Can a believer be miserly?”
“Can a Muslim cheat?”
“No. Those who invest lies are not believers in Allah.”
The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said, “I swear by Allah, he does not believe. I swear by Allah, he does not believe. I swear by Allah, he does not believe.” The companions shocked asked, “Who is he?”
“The one whose neighbour is not safe from his hands.”
Anyone around him is in fear even his household. If the women and children are fearful of man then you should ponder the faith of this person; all we know about him is that he threatens his wife with divorce and his children with a beating even his friends are fearful.
Umar asked someone how he enters his house he said, “All voices fall silent, all movements fall still...” Umar said, “You are one of the tyrants.”
A person will be raised amount the tyrants when all he had responsibility for was his family
Once a camel acted wildly and everyone fled, scared. Then the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) asked to go to it. They said, “We fear for you.” He replied, “Leave it to me open the gates.” He went to it and it prostrated near him; his put his ear near the camel and heard him speak. Then he asked, “Who is the owner of the camel?” “I am.” Said, one of the companions. “The camel is complaining that you are overbearing the camel and overbearing it.”
He said, “After today I will not do this and care for it.”
So he even cared for animals
The scream of the tree that he used to lean on and give sermon could be heard when his was made a minbar to climb to give sermon. When it started to scream he comforted it until it became silent.
Hassan Al-Basri, “Here is a date palm tree and he was distant from it a few cubits; how about the hearts of the believers not yearn and weep for him when they are so far away.”
Our tears for him are tears for his character, noble qualities etc
Look at the security that he gave others. Some would hurt him, wives would stay away from him one night; how could they do this if they were not sure that they were safe from him
The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said to Aisha (may Allah be pleased with her), “I know when you are angry with me and when you are happy.”
She asked, “How do you know that?”
“When you are angry you say by the one who sent Ibrahim with the Truth and when you are happy with me then you say by the one who send Muhammad with the truth.”
“By the one who possesses my soul I will not leave your name.”
The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said, “The one who instils fear into a heart of believer; Allah will instils fear into him on the Day of Judgement.”
Likewise removing someone’s property without their knowledge
Sunday, March 15, 2009
“Allah is not satisfied with disbelief for his servants.” (Sura Az-Zumar 39:7)
“Surely, Allah does not forgive that a partner is ascribed to Him, and He forgives anything short of that for whomsoever He wills. Whoever ascribes a partner to Allah commits a terrible sin.” (Sura the women 4.48)
We need to know about disbelief to protect ourselves from it and not to accuse others of it.
In the Arabic language Kufr means to cover up or hide. A farmer is known as a kafir because he covers seeds in the ground.
In the sacred law kufr/disbelief is to deny anything that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) brought, with the condition that it is definite and two to deny or refuse something that is definite
This is either something well known about the religion to the Ashari’s or something that is just definite to the Maturidi’s.
Others say it is to deny something that is well-known by Islam, for example to deny fasting during Ramadan
Something definite is something that is in the Quran or widely transmitted hadith.
The Ashari’s and the Maturidi’s are two groups of Sunni theological belief and the main groups of this time
There is major and minor disbelief:
Major is disbelief as described above
Minor is when someone is an ingrate about blessings
The conditions for disbelief/kufr are:
1. Sanity: a person has to be sane, an insane persons is not taken to task
2. Awake: if they say it in their sleep, it does not count
3. Forced: if someone is forced then it does not count
The definition of faith/Imam is acceptance of the heart with affirmation on the tongue
With the conditions:
1. Not to do an action of disbelief.
2. And not to jest about it. (jest about religious matters)
The levels of disbelief/kufr are:
1. Kufr Inkari/ Denial disbelief: denies belief
2. Kufr ‘Inadi/ beliefs inside but rejects on his tongue like Abu Jahl
3. Kufr juhudu/ungrateful disbelief: knows the beliefs and rejects
4. Kufr Nifaq/hypocrisy disbelief: no belief but he says he is a believer
Action does not take one out of Islam as action is not included in faith according to the Maturdi’s.
To disbelief in Allah someone has to give him human attributes
Disbelief in the Prophets (upon them peace) is to deny their prophethoods which have been accepted by consensus. Examples which are not accepted by consensus are Dhulqarnan, Dhulqifal, Luqman and Khidr.
Disbelief about religion is to say something is halal/permissible when it is prohibited/haram. For example to say fornication is halal without marriage
Disbelief about the companions is say that a companion is going to hell when the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said they are going to paradise, like the ten promised paradise and the Bayat ul-Ridwan/the oath of acceptance. Cursing the companions does not constitute to disbelief but denying that Abu Bakr as a companion does, because he mentioned in the Quran during the migration to Medina. Also to say that the Angel Gabriel made a mistake and should have gone to Ali (may Allah be pleased with him) instead.
Disbelief about scholars is when someone hates a scholar without valid reason. Also to make fun of the circles of knowledge or to say something else is better than Islamic knowledge.
Black magic is a major wrong action but is not disbelief unless you think that it has a power on its own.
A person can fall into disbelief but disbelief does not fall onto a person
A word of disbelief does not mean that the person leaves Islam and the only person who judge this is a Judge/Qadi. The Qadi has to know one school correctly, some information of other schools and he has to be close to someone who can derive his own rulings a mujtahid.
It is not permissible for an average person to call another Muslim a disbeliever because the hadith prevents us. “If a man calls his brother a disbeliever then one of them deserves the description.” (Key to Paradise page 78 hadith from Bukhari 6045, 6103 and Muslim 60, 61)
The prophetic narration, "The difference between a man and disbelief; is leaving prayer." (Muslim) Ibn Abbas was asked about this and he said this was about kufr an-Na'ma/ingratitide of blessings; minor not major disbelief.
No one can guarantee that they will die on Islam
A person who has pronounced the words of disbelief must:
1. Repent to Allah
2. Repeat testification of faith: “There is no deity except Allah...”
3. Reject previous position
4. Re-marry if necessary
5. Repeat necessary actions like Hajj – disbelieve will destroy all their previous actions
To protect ourselves from disbelief you can say the following:
اللهم إني أعوذُ بِك ان أُشركَ بِك شيئٌ وأنا أعلمُ وأستغفرُكَ لِما لا أعلم وأنتَ علام الغيوب
O’Allah I seek refuge with you; if I have associated with you anything; and I know; and I seek forgiveness to what I do not know; and you know the unseen.
Allahumma inni aa'du bik an urshrika bik shayyan wa ana a'lamu wa astaghfiruka lima la a'lamu wa anta 'alam al-ghayub
Saturday, March 14, 2009
Friday, March 13, 2009
The Sheikh is currently teaching in Paris, may Allah (mighty and majestic) support him and assist him in his efforts.
Wednesday, March 11, 2009
Monday, March 09, 2009
Sunday, March 08, 2009
(This is the first in a series of notes on classes that Sheikh Atabek gave last year. You will be able to find all the notes under the Halal and Haram label.)
To read/memorise a chapter about wudhu/ablution is better than one thousand units of prayer
“The sleep of a scholar is better than the worship of the ignorant.”
The first person who is thrown into hell is a scholar who did not benefit from his knowledge
Seeking knowledge is Haram/prohibited when:
1. It is done for other than Allah (mighty and majestic)
2. For a bad intention like gathering wealth
3. Seeking knowledge so you can argue
4. To seek fame
The obligatory knowledge/Fard ‘ayn (is an obligation upon every Muslim must learn) upon every Muslim is:
1. ‘Ilm al-Hal/ knowledge for your condition: Basic fiqh (jurisprudence), tajweed (how to recite the Quran correctly), sales if you are involved in buying and selling – whatever you need for yourself
2. Basic doctrine/aqida (Abu Hanifa said if someone has a question about doctrine then it is wajib/necessary to find a scholar and ask a question.)
3. Some spirituality/etiquette or suluk
A prohibited knowledge is Black magic which is major sin if done and can lead to disbelief, if a person believes that black magic has a power independently. The reality of black magic is that some people can control non muslims jinns (ghost like creatures made from smokeless fire) but the jinns cannot make you do anything. If you eat seven dates it protects you from poison and black magic.
Fard khifayah (communal obligation) this is an obligation on a community of Muslims, if performed by one person the sin falls from the remainder. We need Muftis, doctors, Quran memorisers etc
Other types of forbidden knowledge are:
2. Tea leaf reading
3. Palm reading
4. Deep theology in order to debate (for the layman)